It goes without saying that many serious claims for medical malpractice arise from procedures and treatment given to patients in hospitals. A hospital is liable for actions of its employees. For example, a hospital is responsible for actions by a doctor or nurse employed by the hospital providing care to hospital patients. Issues can arise if a doctor is not an employee of the hospital, but has privileges to see patients at the hospital. Normally, these doctors bill patients directly for services, not through the hospital. These doctors are considered independent contractors and the hospital may not be liable for negligence of these doctors, though there are a number of exceptions that require careful analysis on a case by case basis.